Thinking About Thinking

Everyone’s 2015 Top Technology Predictions and Trends Lists In One Place

Posted in Technology by larrycheng on December 18, 2014

Here are some of the more prominent technology prediction lists for 2015.  Not surprising themes: security, IoT/wearables, healthcare IT.  Somewhat surprising themes: 3d printing.  Missing in action: bitcoin, marketplaces, etc.

Gartner: Top 10 Strategic Technology Trends for 2015

  1. Computing Everywhere
  2. Internet of Things
  3. 3D Printing
  4. Advanced, Pervasive, and Invisible Analytics
  5. Context-Rich Systems
  6. Smart Machines
  7. Cloud/Client Computing
  8. Software-Defined Applications and Infrastructure
  9. Web-Scale IT
  10. Risk-Based Security and Self-Protection

Business Insider: 14 Tech Trends That Will Make Someone Billions of Dollars Next Year

  1. Companies will buy massive hacker insurance policies
  2. Smartwatches will win over fitness bands
  3. The Apple watch will “dominate”
  4. Everyday things will get a chip and be accessible from the Internet
  5. Employees will hang out together online
  6. Employees will form fitness cults
  7. Fingerprints will replace passwords
  8. Charts and graphs will rule
  9. Hadoop will get even bigger
  10. 3D printers will grow up
  11. Cloud computing will become the norm
  12. Healthcare will become an app
  13. Digital marketing budgets will explode
  14. Overall, businesses will spend more on technology than ever

Wall Street Journal: Ten Market Disruptors For 2015

  1. Financial Services Disruptor: Mobile Technology
  2. Technology Disruptor: Wearables
  3. Consumer Discretionary Disruptor: Digitalization
  4. Energy Disruptor: US Oil Exports
  5. Industrials Disruptor: Oil Prices
  6. Consumer Staples Disruptor: Demographics
  7. Healthcare Disruptor: The Supreme Court
  8. Materials Disruptor: The Chinese Economy
  9. Telecom Disruptor: REITs
  10. Utilities Disruptor: Congressional Action on the EPA

IDC: Top 10 Technology Predictions for 2015

  1. New technologies will account for 100% of growth in telecom IT
  2. Wireless data, the largest segment of the telecom sector, will also be the fastest growing
  3. Phablets will be the mobile growth engine
  4. New partnerships to redraw cloud computing’s landscape
  5. Data-as-a-Service will drive new big data supply chains
  6. The IoT will continue to rapidly expand the traditional IT industry
  7. Cloud service providers will become the new data center, redrawing the IT landscape
  8. Rapid expansion of industry-specific digital platforms
  9. Adoption of new security and printing innovations
  10. More China, everywhere

IBM: Next Five in Five

  1. You’ll beam up friends in 3-D
  2. Batteries will breathe air to power our devices
  3. You won’t need to be a scientist to save the planet
  4. Your commute will be personalized
  5. Computers will help energize your city

IEEE: Top Technology Trends for 2015

  1. Time is right for wearable devices
  2. Internet of Anything becoming all-encompassing
  3. Building security into software design
  4. The age of software-designed anything (SDx)
  5. Cloud security and privacy concerns grow
  6. 3d printing poised for takeoff
  7. Telling the future with predictive analytics
  8. Security considerations for embedded computing
  9. Real growth in augmented reality applications
  10. Continuous digital health

Mashable: 5 Digital Health Trends You’ll See in 2015

  1. Wearables for the ear
  2. Sweat sensor strips
  3. Smartphone case devices
  4. Prescription-only apps
  5. Healthier lighting

My Favorite Value Proposition Is Admittedly Boring

Posted in Growth Equity, Technology, Venture Capital by larrycheng on December 17, 2014

It’s only taken 16 years in the investment business for me to discover my favorite value proposition.  And, I admit, it’s a boring selection.  First, some context.  A value proposition is the value a business offers its customer such that the customer decides to buy that companies’ product.  To be fair, there are many categories of value props that all have great merit and can be the basis of building a valuable company.  So, one is not by definition greater than another.  But, we all have our predispositions, and I have a positive predisposition for one value prop in particular.  I favor this value prop because, if it is structurally sustainable, it can be equally transformative as it is predictable – and those usually don’t go hand in hand.

So, without further ado, my favorite value proposition is offering a customer the opportunity to buy something they already buy, but at a structurally lower price.  Yes, if the options are better, faster or cheaper – I like cheaper.  Why do I like this value prop?  Because there’s little fundamental market risk.  If a customer is already buying a product, then you know they want that product and that product benefits them in some way.  You know they are ready to buy it now because, well, they already buy it now – so you’re not taking market timing risk.  Whether there’s even a market or whether the market is here now is a profoundly underestimated risk undertaken by many emerging technology companies.  And, in this example, you meaningfully mitigate those risks.

Then you layer on top of a large existing market, a very clear reason to buy with you – you’re selling to them the very thing they already buy, for a lower price.  Who doesn’t want that?

The key to a company with lower price as its fundamental value prop being a good investment, is their basis for having a lower price must be structurally defensible and sustainable.  It can’t be that they’re doing exactly the same thing as their competitors, just charging a lower price.  That’s the definition of unsustainable.  There is usually some disruption in the supply chain or some technology innovation, which they can take advantage of above and beyond their competitors which is why they’re able to offer sustainably lower prices to their customers and quickly take market share of a large existing market.

When I look at our current and historical portfolio, where the ingredients of a structurally sustainable lower price value proposition is true, those companies have an inordinate propensity to be worth $1B+ in enterprise value.  Xoom went public last year by offering online global money remittance at a lower price than folks like Western Union because they have an Internet front-end.  Prosper offers loans to consumers at a lower interest rate because they use the Internet to cut out the banks who take a margin in the normal lending process.  Globaltranz offers businesses access to trucking capacity at a much lower price due to the efficiency of their agent network, technology and buying capacity.  Cortera is offering business credit data at a much lower cost than Dun & Bradstreet because of its proprietary data acquisition platform.  And Chewy offers pet owners high quality pet food at a lower price than bricks and mortar competitors because they have no bricks and mortar.  These companies are all taking significant steps in transforming their respective industries on the core value proposition of lower price.

While I can easily fall in love with companies that have other value propositions such as convenience, selection, revenue enhancement, service, etc., lower price is a tried and true value prop which while admittedly boring, can be extremely effective if it’s sustainable.

My Top 15 Favorite Audio Books

Posted in Books, Pop Culture by larrycheng on May 31, 2014

A couple of years ago, I switched off the radio during my daily commute and turned on audio books (through Audible). I’m usually in the car about an hour a day, and a typical book is about 10 hours. So, one book a month is more than reasonable. Here are my top 15 favorite audio books based on a mix of entertainment value, substance, and pure enjoyment. There’s not a huge delta between #1 and #15 – these are all worthwhile books to listen to.

  1. Unbroken, by Laura Hillenbrand: An epic story of survival that made me wish my commute wouldn’t end.
  2. The Last Lecture, by Randy Jeffrey: I won’t lie – shed some tears during this one.
  3. Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother, by Amy Chua: Hilarious cultural memoir, not how-to parenting book.
  4. No Easy Day, by Matt Bissonnette and Kevin Maurer: I felt like I was watching an action movie blockbuster.
  5. The Everything Store, by Brad Stone: A total page turner about Jeff Bezos and the Amazon.com story.
  6. A Walk in the Woods, by Bill Bryson: I had no idea a book about a hike could be so entertaining and funny.
  7. Crazy Love, by Francis Chan: A great reminder about what’s at the heart of the Gospel.
  8. Bossy Pants, by Tina Fey: This book, read by Fey, is laugh out loud funny. Her comedy is genius.
  9. How to Win Friends & Influence People, by Dale Carnegie: Classic book with principles that stand the test of time.
  10. Radical, by David Platt: A challenging and stark look at the Bible in light of the American dream.
  11. Lean In, by Sheryl Sandberg: Some really prescient observations that make it a worthwhile read.
  12. The Locust Effect, by Gary Haugen and Victor Boutros: Powerful book revealing how violence impacts the poor.
  13. Quiet, by Susan Cain: An eye-opening book on introverts, that all extroverts should read.
  14. Money, Possessions, and Eternity, by Randy Alcorn: A biblical framework about money and giving.
  15. Francona, by Dan Shaughnessy: I love “behind the scenes” books. This being about the Red Sox was a bonus.

The 10 Slide Company Pitch Deck

Posted in Growth Equity, Technology, Venture Capital, Volition Capital by larrycheng on April 29, 2014

I love meeting with new companies.  To me, it’s the oxygen of this business and the most energizing aspect of the job.  That being said, the one thing that can take the energy right out of an introductory meeting is the obligatory 20-40 slide company pitch deck that drags on and on.  Personally, I prefer a more conversational meeting in which slides are used to launch conversations, rather than claim the entire conversation, about various important topics relevant to the business.  Therefore, I thought I’d provide a general framework for a succinct 10-slide pitch deck that should be more than sufficient for an introductory investor meeting.  Keep in mind that given Volition is a technology growth equity investor, this is more geared towards companies with some revenue and customers rather than a pure start-up.  But, I do think there are principles that are portable across different stages.

The 10 Slide Pitch Deck (in no particular order):

1.  The Problem Statement. This is the problem the company solves.  What is the problem, why is it such a high priority for whoever has it?  Why does this problem have to get solved?

2.  How You Solve The Problem.  This gets to what the company does.  Why do you have unique knowledge of the problem, how do you solve the problem, and why is that a differentiated / defensible approach?

3.  The Customer.  This gets to who the target customer is specifically.  The more detailed and segmented this is, the more credible I find it to be.  I’d rather hear, “The chief compliance officer at hedge funds with $100M+ in assets” than “financial services companies”, as an example.  Then provide examples of actual customers.  How many of those target customers out there actually have the problem you articulated?

4.  The Value to the Customer.  This gets to the return on investment.  How much does the customer have to pay (what is the pricing model), and why is it clearly worth it to them to pay it.

5.  Actual Use Cases.  Now that you’ve established the problem, solution and value in concept – let’s talk about it in reality.  If there’s only one primary use case, given an example of a real customer with a prototypical use case.  If there are 2 or 3 common use cases, let’s hear example of all of those.

6.  The Product.  This can go anywhere in the presentation, but if it’s at this point, I’m probably more than eager to see the product in action.  A live demo is always best.

7.  Competitive Position.  Who else out there is also trying to solve this problem, and why are you better positioned to succeed?  Why are you going to win your segment?  This is a great chance to talk about win-rates against competition, etc.

8.  Financial Overview.  A simple slide with historical and projected (to the degree you have them) income statement, balance sheet, and cash flows.  A couple of bullets on financing history and ownership breakdown are helpful.

9.  Other Key Metrics.  This is your opportunity to brag with the actual data that you consider leading indicators for your business.  Maybe it’s retention rate, lifetime value/CAC, upsell dynamics, customer or transactional growth, etc.

10.  Management Team.  Who are the people behind this company?  Don’t just put logos of past companies, but titles/roles, companies, and key achievements for each exec at their prior companies.  Also worth noting if there are any key hires you want to make.

Every company is different, but hopefully this provides a helpful framework to organize a simple pitch deck.  Don’t feel the need to address every sub-question with actual content on the slide.  You can always talk to the details during the presentation.  Often times, less is more when it comes to slide content.

My suggestion in terms of order is to start with the strongest aspect of the company.  If the management team is the strength, lead with it.  If the financial performance is the strength, by all means, lead with that.  If you’ve got a breakthrough product, start with a demo.  But, creating momentum in the meeting right out of the gate is always a good idea.

I’m probably missing something important, but hopefully this is helpful in getting readers pointed in the right direction.

 

The World of Finance Has Problems

Posted in Books, Economy by larrycheng on April 12, 2014

I have to shake my head in disappointment at the headlines this past week in the world of finance and money.  It makes me wonder why I even periodically come to the defense of the industry when in weeks like this, it seems like a fruitless exercise.  Here’s a tasting of this past week:

1.  LIBOR manipulation settlements.  LIBOR is the benchmark interest rate that impacts hundreds of trillions of dollars worth of financial contracts.  Everything from mortgages, student loans, car loans, derivative contracts, and many others are pegged to LIBOR.  LIBOR is calculated daily based on the submissions of some of the largest banks in the world.  And, in 2005-2009, it was apparently manipulated by some those contributing banks for their own personal gain.  This week, one of the chief offenders, Barclays, reached another settlement with a regulators over their behavior in this period.  How is it possible that one of the most important metrics in the global finance industry is manipulated over many years?  I guess it’s entirely possible.

2.  The stock market is “rigged” – according to author Michael Lewis.  His claim is that high frequency traders front-run stock trades all day and every day so that both institutional and retail investors alike pay what amounts to artificially expensive and manipulated prices on routine stock trades.  This is apparently legal, for now.  But, its potentially wide-ranging impact on the US stock market is coming to light.

3.  Alleged IRS corruption hearings proceed.  Claims of the IRS abusing power are came back into the forefront this week.  This has unfortunately become a purely partisan issue.  But, further information about the IRS suggests there’s potentially a bigger issue at hand than even what’s presently going through the House.

4.  SAC Capital pays largest insider trading settlement in history.  $1.8 billion is what it takes to settle one of the longest running, widest ranging insider trading scandals in history.

So, in one week, the headlines are about THE benchmark interest rate being manipulated for years, the entire stock market being rigged, the largest taxing authority in the US potentially corrupt, and the largest ever insider trading investigation being settled.  Clearly, this has not been a proud week for the world of finance.  Let’s hope better things are in store next week.

The Economics of Bananas

Posted in Economy, Pop Culture by larrycheng on January 10, 2014

Yesterday, I had the unexpected opportunity to speak with a former executive of a major fruit and produce company.  I always find it really fun to talk with someone about something I know nothing about – and in this case, the topic was bananas.  So, I asked him about the economics of bananas, and this is what he said:

  • Depending on location, retail price is ~$0.70 per pound.
  • That retailer buys them by the box which is 40 pounds.  So $28 is the retail revenue per box.
  • The producer charges the retailer $12 for the box.
  • The retailer also incurs additional costs for 7-days of storage and refrigeration at 56 degrees for ripening.
  • The producer pays $10-$11 in costs for that box ($6-$7 for pick and pack, $1 for packaging, $2.50 for shipping, and $1 of marketing/sales overhead)
  • Within a few hours of picking, the bananas are stored and shipped in refrigerated containers at 56 degrees.  Shipping can take 7+ days.
  • The picker probably makes ~$12/day and is paid per stem picked.

It’s always interesting to look at a supply chain of a product and decipher where in the chain you’d want to be.  In this case, I’m happy to be the one eating the banana.

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A Grounded Mentality On Year-End Compensation

Posted in Organizations, Philosophy by larrycheng on December 21, 2013

This post is prompted by a number of conversations I’ve had over the past several weeks with friends and colleagues in the technology and investment industries.  As year-end approaches, the primary topic of these discussions has been how they should approach compensation, bonus, and promotion discussions in their respective situations.  For the most part, we’re in a pretty good cycle.  The stock market is up.  The IPO window is open.  Technology is hot.  Things are good.  For the most part, these specific individuals can make a strong claim that they have performed really well.  And, for the most part, they come with the mentality that they expect to get rewarded generously for their performance.  At the highest level, I don’t have any issue with this point of view.

That being said, my guidance in these conversations is rarely about money, but about mentality.

First and foremost, we need to remember that it’s easy in the good times for us to take too much credit for our success.  While undoubtedly we may deserve a lot of credit, in reality, our successes are probably dependent on other factors as well.  Our success probably begins with someone giving us the opportunity to be successful, even when it might not have been obvious that we deserved that opportunity.  There are probably many people around us who have contributed to that success – whether professional colleagues, family and friends that supported us, or that one person whose vote of confidence made all the difference.  Our professional success almost always has some dependency on the assets of the company that we work at – assets which we may have largely inherited.  Especially in the investment business, our success is also influenced by external factors completely out of our control like economic growth, Fed policy, the stock market, and consumer sentiment.  Before we claim full credit for our success and expect to get paid accordingly, it’s important to be grounded in the reality that our success is never solely our own.  It would be a healthy exercise to thank some of the individuals that helped us achieve our successes this year, before going into some of these compensation discussions, to help get into the right frame of mind.

Secondly, we need to maintain perspective.  In the good times, especially in this business, it’s important to remember that bad times are inevitable.  None of us will have careers without hard times.  Therefore, we need to remember to represent ourselves during the good times in a way that we will still be proud of and not regret when the bad times come.  If we claim all of the credit and operate with a sense of entitlement during the good times, it’s very easy to erode the foundation of support from longstanding relationships that we all need to sustain us through the bad times.  Once we lose that support, we have lost something that is far more valuable than any near-term compensation.  It’s hard to see that when we’re in the moment, but it’s the most obvious observation in hindsight.

Finally, we need to remember that in the long run, it’s not money that will bring the most happiness.  The fulfillment of increased income is typically a fleeting fulfillment.  It’s often other aspects of a job that drive a person’s joy in their careers.  It’s working with people we enjoy and respect.  It’s being in a position to learn and grow as a person.  It’s about being part of something we value.  It’s about having fun and contributing.  It’s about being able to achieve professionally while still being able to be the person we want to be at home and with our families.  If we’re fortunate enough to be in a situation where all of the intangibles line up for our enduring professional fulfillment, it would be unfortunate to compromise that over something like money that will never quite fulfill us.

That being said, this doesn’t excuse people making compensation decisions from being generous with the talented people around them.  They absolutely should be.  This is more of a reminder for us not to lose ourselves in near-term financial decisions when over the long-run, so many other things matter more.

Start With The Problem

Posted in Founder-Owned Businesses, Growth Equity, Philosophy by larrycheng on October 23, 2012

After hearing dozens of company pitches over the last week or so, I noticed a common theme with how CEOs told the story of their business.  They typically expended great energy explaining what their company’s product or service does.  They will talk about features and functionality that no other player in the market has.  Where appropriate, they will dive into a demo to show exactly how their product is such a game changer.  While this is important, in some respects, I think it is putting the cart before the horse.

Personally speaking, I think a good story for a business starts with the problem that is being solved.  It’s hard to fall in love with a product, if you don’t believe it solves a big problem.  A problem worth solving is one that is a high priority issue for the one experiencing it.  It is a problem that is experienced to a similarly high degree, by a large and common constituency.  It is also a problem that people are willing to pay, and sometimes pay substantially, to resolve.

In every company pitch, the CEO will try to tell me what the company does.  But, you may be surprised that in many pitches, the CEO may neglect to really spend time articulating the problem their company solves.  Sometimes when I ask very directly what problem it is that they solve, the response will be a description of product functionality, not in fact a problem.  This to me is a telltale sign that the company was started to create functionality, not necessarily to solve an important problem.

If we were ever to get into due diligence on a company, we will likely spend as much time validating the magnitude and priority of the problem the company solves as we do on the merits of the product.  If we love your product, but are unconvinced on the problem it solves – we are unlikely to get across the finish line on an investment.  The reality is a company can control how a product evolves and develops.  But, the problem is what it is – so choosing the right problem to solve is critical for the ultimate success of any business.

So my simple advice is that when you tell the story of your business, start with the problem.  If you convince people of the problem your company is trying to solve, you have laid the foundation for them to love what your company does.

Can Online Privacy Compliance Even Be Implemented? Not Until Now.

Posted in Technology by larrycheng on October 12, 2012

It happens every day.  You visit a website.  Information on your visit is passed to a third party (such as an ad network).  That third party uses the data for purposes that is not something you’ve explicitly condoned.  For example, go to Zappos and look at your favorite red shoe.  Then go about your daily web life – and notice how that red shoe will show up in Zappos ads on other websites unrelated to Zappos.  This form of advertising, called re-targeting, happens because Zappos has given information from your site visit to various third parties who then run the ad.  But, what if you didn’t want Zappos to give any information on your visit to any retargeter?  What if you didn’t want your data given to any third party for any purpose at all?

A myriad of solutions have been proposed to address this problem, but they all revolve around the same fundamental framework.  The framework is that your browser communicates to the website you’re visiting whether you consent to being tracked through your data being shared with third parties.  And that website complies.  Here are some of the competing philosophies:

  • Every website has to explicitly ask you what your preference is when you visit it and then lock in that preference for future visits (e.g. certain EU countries).
  • You have to proactively opt-out of tracking in your browser settings, otherwise there is implied consent for all websites to track you (e.g. U.S. Do Not Track Legislation).
  • The default setting of the browser should turn off tracking (e.g. Microsoft).

While a disproportionate amount of energy has been spent arguing about the merits of these varying philosophies, they are all based on an assumption that is flawed.  The flawed assumption is that if a website receives notification from your browser that you don’t want to be tracked – they can actually technically comply with that request.  Think for a moment how hard that is.  The instant you hit a webpage, your tracking preference is communicated, and somehow that website has to turn off all tracking applications in the website before any of those applications run.  It all has to happen in a nanosecond.

To date, there have been two primary approaches to addressing this technically.  Both have their flaws.

  • Comply, after the fact.  This is referred to as “un-pixeling”.  The way this works is your browser communicates your tracking preference at the time of your visit, but the website does nothing differently.  You are still being tracked.  After your visit, though, the website communicates to the various third parties that they shared your data with that you did not want to be tracked – and then they expect that third parties honor that request by deleting your information in their records.  The flaw with this approach is it’s not actually compliant at the time of your visit, and there’s no guarantee of compliance after your visit either.
  • Centralize all tags.  Given that all tracking applications are tag-based, this approach involves putting every tag-based application on a website into a single tag management system (TMS).  By having all of the tags in a TMS, the website can then control whether the applications run after receiving your tracking preference information.  The flaw with this approach is two-fold.  Most websites don’t use a TMS, though I personally expect that to change very quickly.  The more important issue is that even in the most comprehensive TMS deployments, it’s never the case that every single tag across a company’s web properties sits in a TMS.  So, complete compliance in this model is not realistic.

So, where do we go from here?  Are we destined to have all of this debate on Internet privacy philosophies and policies, all the while lacking a realistic means to implement any agreed upon policy?  That was the case until recently.  Just this week, Volition portfolio company, Ensighten, received a patent on a novel approach to consumer Internet privacy management.  It’s finally a practical and easy way to comprehensively comply with your privacy preferences.  How does it work?

Ensighten’s privacy management platform is both simple and brilliant.  It only requires that a company puts a single line of code in the header of their webpage.  It then auto detects all existing and new tags on the page.  Then, when you visit a webpage with Ensighten’s privacy service running, it can automatically suppress any and all tag-based applications that require suppression based on your stated preferences and the regulations of your country.  Importantly, Ensighten can do this prior to any of these applications running.  This solution also does not require the deployment of  a tag management system.  Simple, comprehensive, and real-time privacy compliance has arrived.

So let the debate rage on.  Whatever the final answer is, there will now be a way to act on it.

Behind The Scenes Of An MSNBC TV Interview

Posted in Pop Culture by larrycheng on October 11, 2012

Periodically, some of the partners at Volition will do network television spots on shows related to business and technology.  Today, I paid a visit to 30 Rockefeller and the MSNBC studios to participate in J.J. Ramberg’s show, “Your Business” (also author of It’s Your Business).  The show won’t air until later, but this will give you a sense of what happens behind the scenes.

Prep Call

People often ask me whether or not I know what questions will be asked before going on the show.  In general, I know the topics that will be discussed, but the questions actually asked are far more fluid.  So, generally I prepare comments around the topics and then hope that the questions asked align with what I’m prepared to talk about.  If not, winging it is the only option.  But, the preparation still helps to think quickly.

Studio Arrival

It’s always a bit intimidating when you arrive at the studio, and you realize it’s the same studio used to tape all of the same shows you watch on TV.  In this case, the studio for MSNBC is at 30 Rockefeller.  The Today Show was taping when I arrived.  And, no, I did not run into Tina Fey.

Green Room

After making it through security, I’m ushered up to the green room.  Before I visited a green room, it sounded like a fancy place where the big TV personalities hang out.  In reality, it can be a rather humble room in some cases.  Typically the show that you will be participating in, if it’s a live show, is playing in the green room so you can get a feel for what’s going on.

Make-Up

I didn’t appreciate how important make-up is until I saw myself on TV without make-up.  Not a pretty sight.  It’s non-obvious when you’re watching a show, but everyone on camera has substantial make-up on.  It looks normal on TV – it looks abnormal in person.

In Studio!  

If it’s a live show, typically I get brought into the studio during a commercial break and have less than a minute before we go live.  It’s somewhat nerve rattling that right after the technician gets your microphone hooked up, you hear someone else counting down, “In 5, 4, 3, 2, 1…”  Today, it was a taped show, so there was a little less pressure.

On Air

When we’re on air, we’ve been coached not to look at the camera.  We’re supposed to ignore the cameras and simply have a conversation with the host and any other folks on the panel.  You can see all of the final segments on Volition’s “On Air” section of our website.

That’s the whole process in a nutshell!

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